Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was
    also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was a Black African American
    Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist.

    He was admired by many and was a courageous advocate for the rights of
    Black African Americans, a man who indicted White America in the
    harshest terms for its crimes against Black Americans.

    Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential
    Black African Americans in history.  He is credited with raising the self-
    esteem of Black Americans and reconnecting them with their African
    heritage. He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the Black
    community in the United States.

    Many African Americans, especially those who lived in cities in the
    Northern and Western United States, felt that Malcolm X articulated their
complaints concerning inequality better than the mainstream civil rights movement did.

One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration, Malcolm X "made clear the price that white
America would have to pay if it did not accede to Black America's legitimate demands."

    In the late 1960s, as Black activists became more radical, Malcolm X and
    his teachings were part of the foundation on which they built their
    movements. The Black Power movement, the Black Arts Movement, and
    the widespread adoption of the slogan "Black is beautiful" can all trace
    their roots to Malcolm X.

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest
    in Malcolm X among young people fueled, in part, by his use as an icon by
    hip hop groups such as Public Enemy. Images of Malcolm X could be found
    on T-shirts and jackets. Pictures of him were on display in hundreds of
    thousands of homes, offices, and schools. This wave peaked in 1992 with
    the release of Malcolm X, a much-anticipated film adaptation of The
    Autobiography of Malcolm X.
    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an
    zAfrican American civil rights activist whom the U.S. Congress later called the
    "Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement."

    After a day at work at Montgomery Fair department store, Parks boarded the
    Cleveland Avenue bus at around 6 PM, Thursday, December 1, 1955, in
    downtown Montgomery.

    She paid her fare and sat in an empty seat in the first row of back seats reserved
    for Blacks in the "colored" section - which was near the middle of the bus and
    directly behind the ten seats reserved for white passengers. Initially, she had not
    noticed that the bus driver was the same man, James F. Blake, who had left her
    in the rain in 1943.

    As the bus traveled along its regular route, all of the white-only seats in the bus
filled up. The bus reached the third stop in front of the Empire Theater, and several white passengers boarded.

In 1900, Montgomery had passed a city ordinance for segregating passengers by race. Conductors were given
the power to assign seats to accomplish that purpose; however, no passengers would be required to move or
give up their seat and stand if the bus was crowded and no other seats were available. Over time and by custom,
however, Montgomery bus drivers had adopted the practice of requiring black riders to move whenever there
were no white only seats left.

So, following standard practice, bus driver Blake noted that the front of the bus was filled with white passengers
and there were two or three men standing, and thus moved the "colored" section sign behind Parks and
demanded that four Black people give up their seats in the middle section so that the white passengers could
sit.

    Years later, in recalling the events of the day, Parks said, "When that white
    driver stepped back toward us…when he waved his hand and ordered us up
    and out of our seats, I felt a determination cover my body like a quilt on a
    winter night."

    Parks said, "The driver wanted us to stand up, the four of us. We didn't move
    at the beginning, but he says, 'Let me have these seats.' And the other three
    people moved, but I didn't."

    The Black man sitting next to her gave up his seat. Parks moved, but
    toward the window seat; she did not standup and move to the newly
    repositioned colored section.

    Blake asked, "Why don't you stand up?"
    Parks responded, "I don't think I should have to stand up."

Blake called the police to arrest Parks. When recalling the incident for Eyes on the Prize, a 1987 public
television series on the Civil Rights Movement, Parks said, "
When he saw me still sitting, he asked if I was
going to stand up, and I said, 'No, I'm not.' And he said, 'Well, if you don't stand up, I'm going to have to call the
police and have you arrested.' I said, 'You may do that.'"

    During a 1956 radio interview with Sydney Rogers in West Oakland
    several months after her arrest, when asked why she had decided
    not to vacate her bus seat, Parks said, "I would have to know for once
    and for all what rights I had as a human being and a citizen."

    She also detailed her motivation in her autobiography, My Story:
    People always say that I didn't give up my seat because I was tired, but
    that isn't true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually
    was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people
    have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only
    tired I was, was tired of giving in.



When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her away, she recalled
that she asked,
"Why do you push us around?"

The officer's response as she remembered it was, "I don't know, but the law's the law, and you're under arrest."
She later said, "I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I would ever ride in
humiliation of this kind."

    Parks was charged with a violation of Chapter 6, Section 11-segregation
    law of the Montgomery City code, although she technically had not taken
    up a white-only seat—she had been in a colored section. E.D. Nixon and
    Clifford Durr bailed Parks out of jail the evening of December 2.

    That evening, Nixon conferred with Alabama State College professor Jo
    Ann Robinson about Parks' case. Robinson, a member of the Women's
    Political Council (WPC), stayed up all night mimeographing over 35,000
    handbills announcing a bus boycott. The Women's Political Council was the
    first group to officially endorse the boycott.

    On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    were announced at Black churches in the area, and a front-page article in
    The Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. At a church rally
    that night, those attending agreed unanimously to continue the boycott
until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected.  They would remain until Black drivers were
hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis.

    Four days later, Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct
    and violating a local ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes. Parks
    was found guilty and fined $10, plus $4 in court costs. Parks
    appealed her conviction and formally challenged the legality of racial
    segregation.

    In a 1992 interview with National Public Radio's Lynn Neary, Parks
    recalled:
    I did not want to be mistreated.  I did not want to be deprived of a seat
    that I had paid for.  It was just time... there was opportunity for me to
    take a stand to express the way I felt about being treated in that
    manner.  I had not planned to be arrested. I had plenty to do without
    having to end up in jail.  But when I had to face that decision, I didn't
    hesitate to do so because I felt that we had endured that too long. The
    more we gave in, the more we complied with that kind of treatment, the
    more oppressive it became."
BLACK HISTORY
Black History Month celebrates the history and contributions of African-Americans. The origin of this
observance goes back to 1915, when historian Carter G. Woodson proposed Black History Week, although it
did not begin until 1926. Woodson chose the second week in February to honor the birthdays of Abraham
Lincoln and Frederick Douglass, two important Americans who affected the lives of Blacks. Later, in 1976, this
celebration turned into Black History Month.
  • Carter G. Woodson
    Were it not for this man's efforts, not only would we not have a Black History
    month, but we probably would have far less of a cultural identity or knowledge of
    where we came from. Carter Woodson, referred to as the "Father of Black
    History," was much more than just the founder of Black History Month. He was
    a scholar with a doctorate from Harvard and an author of several books
    documenting the history, culture, and contributions of African-Americans to this
    country.

  • Rosa Parks - Civil Rights Activist (1913--2005)   
    Born Rosa Louise McCauley, Parks is considered the Mother of the Civil
    Rights Revolution. She is best known for her protest of segregation laws through
    her choice to not give up her bus seat to a white man in 1955. This incident
    inspired the African-American community, who then began a 381-day boycott of
    public transportation in Montgomery. Later, on November 13, 1956, the
Supreme Court declared the segregation laws on buses in Alabama to be unconstitutional. Other significant
achievements include the founding of the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development; a
publication of her memoir, Quiet Strength; and receiving the Congressional Gold Medal.

  • Langston Hughes - Literature (1902--67)   
    Hughes was a great writer as a poet, playwright, novelist and journalist. He was a significant part of the
    Harlem Renaissance in the 1920's & 1930's.  He spoke out against segregation and other issues. As the
    History Channel describes him, "By the time of his death, Hughes was widely recognized as the most
    representative of African-American writers and perhaps the most original of Black poets. What set him apart
    was the deliberate saturation of his work in the primary expressive forms of black mass culture as well as in
    the typical life experiences of the mass of African Americans, whom he viewed with near-total love and
    devotion."

  • Colin Powell - Retired Four-Star Army General & Politician
    Powell, born in Harlem in 1937 to Jamaican parents, is a man of many firsts. His parents instilled in him
    the importance of education and personal achievement. Not only did he have numerous achievements in
    his life, but he would later instill those same values in others.

  • Elizabeth Jennings - Activist
    Over 100 years before the events leading to the Montgomery Bus Boycott were conceived, blacks were
    rallying against unequal treatment on New York City's public transportation systems.

  • Barbara Jordan - Lawyer
    Jordan's political career began in her kitchen. A native of Houston, Jordan returned home in 1959 after
    receiving her law degree at Boston University, using her kitchen as her law office to help poor people
    with their legal troubles. In 1962 and 1964, she unsuccessfully ran for the Texas House of
    Representatives before winning a seat in the Texas Senate in 1966. She was the first African-American
    woman and first African-American since 1883 to be elected to that position.

  • Condoleezza Rice - Politician
    Rice currently serves as the U.S. Secretary of State. Although born into the segregated South, her
    parents instilled in her the values that she was capable of fulfilling her dreams. In an interview with
    Ebony, she stated, Our parents really did have us convinced that [even though I] couldn't have a
    hamburger at Woolworth's, [I] could be president of the United States.

  • Bessie Coleman - Aviation
    Coleman was a woman with an inextinguishable passion to fly during a time when neither blacks nor
    women were allowed to be pilots.

  • Dick Gregory - Activist
    Gregory is perhaps equally known for his comedy as he is for his civil rights activism. Often, both went
    hand in hand. Gregory often used his comedy to make statements about race relations in America:
    "Segregation is not all bad. Have you ever heard of a collision where the people in the back of the bus got
    hurt?"
Key Lessons in History and Character
    All young people need positive role models to inspire them and spur
    them on and to help them know that they, too, have the potential to
    achieve their dreams and accomplish worthwhile and important
    things.

    Young Blacks need to know about the many positive achievements
    of Black men and women throughout history in every field of
    endeavor.  Knowing what others have done inspires confidence in
    young people to know that they can do worthwhile things too.

    Knowing about the achievements of Black doctors, scientists,
    lawyers, economists and journalists provides encouragement and
    incentive to Black young people to strive for excellence themselves.
    Without such knowledge and encouragement, young people can end
    up wasting precious time and energy while feeling victimized.
Why Black History Month  Remains Important Today
Black history is not merely Black history, it is American history. By better understanding the positive
contributions of another ethnic group, all Americans benefit.  When we understand one another better, we are
that much closer to having positive relationships with one another.

    Many non-Blacks, even many Blacks, have erroneous stereotypes in their minds
    about Blacks and their history in the United States.  These negative ideas and
    impressions create barriers to good relationships and to the true potential that
    all Americans have for working together toward our common goals for freedom,
    peace and achievement.

    Black History Month provides a focus on the positive history, achievements and
    contributions to American ideals that Blacks have made throughout history.  And
    that helps to dispel the negative ideas and stereotypes that invariably spring up
    when the truth is not given the light of day.

    The experience of Black Americans in our history can be a further inspiration to
    all Americans that no matter how tough the struggle, no matter what the odds,
    when we don’t give up, when we stand together firmly for the right and the truth,
    great things can happen.  And there’s nothing more truly American than that.  It
    is our collective legacy and heritage.
    Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an
    American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the Black
    African American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to
    secure progress on civil rights in the United States, and he has
    become a human rights icon: King is recognized as a martyr by two
    Christian churches.

    A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his
    career.

    He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, serving as its
    first president.  King's efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington,
    where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he
    raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and
established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history.

In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial
segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means. By the time of his
death in 1968, he had refocused his efforts on ending poverty and opposing the Vietnam War, both from a
religious perspective. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously
awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther
King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. national holiday in 1986.

1929-1968
    It is fitting during Black History Month in February that we remember the work
    and vision of Martin Luther King Jr., a major leader of the civil rights movement
    beginning in the mid 1950s. Americans celebrate his birthday as a national
    holiday each January, recalling the struggle to end racism and bigotry in America.
                                                          
    King was an eloquent Baptist minister who advocated and participated in
    nonviolent means to achieve civil right for Blacks and equality for all.

    King received a bachelor of divinity degree from Crozier Theological Seminary
    in 1951 and earned a doctor of philosophy degree from Boston University in
    1955. He came from a long line of Baptist ministers. His father was pastor of
    Atlanta’s Ebenezer Baptist Church, and in 1960, King moved to the city to
    pastor his father’s congregation. King was chosen as the first president of the
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957.

    In 1963, he was jailed in Birmingham, Alabama, after a nonviolent protest that
    led to a confrontation with Public Safety Commissioner "Bull" Connor and
    municipal authorities. While in jail, King was criticized by a group of white
    clergymen who blamed him for inciting the violence and who voiced concerns
    about his civil rights strategy. It was then that he penned his "Letter From a
    Birmingham Jail."

    King ended his letter with these words: "I hope this letter finds you
    strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it
    possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil
    rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother. Let us
    all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away
    and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear-
    drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the
    radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation
    with all their scintillating beauty."


King spoke about what people should remember him for if they are around for his funeral. He said rather than
his awards and where he went to school, people should talk about how he fought peacefully for justice:
I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others.  I'd like for
somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody.  I want you to say that day that I tried
to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to
be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I
did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity.  
Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum
major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter.


    Then in August 1963 came King’s most soaring and hopeful civil
    rights rally on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.
    C. Here he delivered his rallying "I Have a Dream" speech."

    For his work to end segregation and discrimination, King was
    awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. King was only 35 years old
    when he accepted the prize in December of that year on behalf of all
    who participated in the Civil Rights Movement, making him the
    youngest recipient of the award in history.

    But the seeds of human hatred and bitterness cut short King’s life
    less than four years later. On April 4, 1968, while standing on the
    balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, he was shot
to death by James Earl Ray. King was only 39 years old.  Though he never wavered from his position and
practice that nonviolence must remain the approach of the civil rights movement, he died a martyr’s death from
an assassin’s bullet.
QUESTION: What city did Jazz emerge from?
A. Memphis
B. New Orleans
C. Chicago
Answer: B.
 Jazz evolved in New Orleans, which is often considered the most musical city  in the U.S. because of its
French, Spanish, West Indian, African, and English influences. However, by the early 1920s Chicago had emerged
as the jazz capital, while Memphis was a major center for blues music.


QUESTION: The most famous jazz nightclub in Harlem was called:
A. The Cotton Club
B. El Morocco
C. Studio 54
Answer: A.
 Open from 1923 to 1940, the Cotton Club was the leading nightclub in Harlem, featuring elaborate
floor shows and innovative music. Blacks were only allowed to perform. The audience was white. Many
performances were broadcast live over the radio. Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Ethel Waters, and Billie Holiday
performed there. The El Morocco nightclub was located in mid-Manhattan, while the disco Studio 54 was not
established until 1977.


QUESTION: Who was the first African-American to play Major League Baseball?
A. Elston Howard
B. Satchell Paige
C. Jackie Robinson
Answer: C.
 Jackie Robinson. Jackie became the Dodgers' second baseman in 1948. As the season went on,
Jackie's play on the field helped turn the boos into cheers. He batted .297, led the National League in stolen bases
(29), and was named Rookie of the Year. In 10 major league seasons, Jackie helped the Dodgers win six N.L.
pennants and the 1955 World Series. (source: Sports Illustrated Kids)


QUESTION: Who was the first track-and-field athlete to win four gold medals at one Olympics?
A. Carl Lewis
B. Jesse Owens
C. Maurice Greene
Answer: B.
Jesse Owens. The 1936 Olympics were held in Berlin, Germany, in front of the hateful eyes of dictator
Adolph Hitler. For Hitler, the Berlin Olympics was a stage to prove to the world that his racist views were correct.
Jesse Owens proved him wrong by winning the gold in the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, long jump, and the
4x100-meter relay. In 1976, President Gerald Ford awarded Jesse the Medal of Freedom, the highest honor a U.S.
citizen can receive. (source: Sports Illustrated Kids)


QUESTION: The 15th Amendment, which granted African Americans the right to vote, was passed on which
date?
A. February 3, 1870
B. July 14, 1889
C. November 19, 1910
Answer: A.
 February 3, 1870 (source: Information Please)


QUESTION: Who is generally considered the mother of the civil rights movement?
A. Harriet Tubman
B. Susan B. Anthony
C. Rosa Parks
Answer: C.
Rosa Parks.  Her refusal to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger triggered the 1955-1956
Montgomery bus boycott. An escaped slave, Tubman became a successful "conductor" on the Underground
Railroad. Anthony is generally considered the mother of the women’s rights movement.


QUESTION: Who was the first African-American woman to serve in a presidential cabinet post?
A. Shirley Chisholm
B. Patricia Roberts Harris
C. Condoleezza Rice
Answer: B.
Patricia Roberts Harris served as secretary of housing and urban development under President Jimmy
Carter. Before that, she had been the first African-American woman to hold a U.S. ambassadorship, which was to
Luxembourg under President Lyndon B. Johnson.
The owner and originator of all information are gathered from various sources and most artists of each photograph are unknown.
All credit belongs to the original author and/or artist.
March on Washington, 50 years ago
Dr. Martin Luther King’s
speech,
"I have a Dream"

CLICK HERE
audio
Dr. Martin Luther King’s
speech,
"I have a Dream"

CLICK HERE
Black History
What Is Black History Month?
Take the time as a family to learn about the history of African-Americans. While reading their biographies,
discuss how their contributions have impacted our society, what obstacles they had to face, and what character
virtues they display.

Devote a Family Night to enjoying African games and crafts. Use these fun activities as a way to get your kids
thinking about African-American heritage
Through struggle, perseverance and courage, many African-Americans have made significant contributions to
history, science, government, sports, entertainment, and our culture. Their stories and backgrounds are varied,
but they all provide great lessons in history and character.

Click Here to learn more
Family Activity
Brief Bio of Memorable Black African Americans
Carter G. Woodson
    Carter Godwin Woodson (December 19, 1875 - April 3, 1950) was an
    African American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the
    Association for the Study of African American Life and History. He was
    one of the first scholars to value and study Black History. He recognized
    and acted upon the importance of a people having an awareness and
    knowledge of their contributions to humanity and left behind an impressive
    legacy. A founder of Journal of Negro History, Dr. Woodson is known as
    the Father of Black History.

    Dr. Woodson was a son of former slaves. He worked in the coal mines in
    Kentucky to put himself through high school. He graduated from Berea
    College in Kentucky in 1903, and then went on to Harvard for his Ph.D.

    It bothered him to find that Blacks had hardly been written about in
    American history books, even though blacks had been part of American
    history from as far back as colonial times. And when Blacks were
mentioned, it was not in ways that reflected the positive contributions that they had made.  So he wanted to do
something about that. In 1915, he established the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (now
called the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History) and then founded the Journal of Negro
History and Negro History Bulletin. Then in 1926 he started promoting the second week of February as Negro
History Week.

Woodson chose February because the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and abolitionist Frederick Douglass were
in that month. These were two men who had a great influence on Black Americans.

In addition, several other important events took place in February. For example, the 15th Amendment, which
said that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race, was ratified on Feb. 3, 1870.

W.E.B. DuBois, educator and writer, was born in February 1868. The first Black U.S. senator, Hiram Revels
(far right), took his oath of office in February 1870.  The founding of the NAACP in 1909 took place in February,
as did the murder of Malcolm X in 1965, and the Greensboro, North Carolina, sit-in at the Woolworth’s lunch
counter in 1960.
Characterizing Black History Month
Christians Benefiting from Black History Month
Hope.  It is all about promoting hope—hope for a better tomorrow that springs from the lessons, the tears and
the joys of what has gone before. It’s a hope that grows from understanding and from truth—and from the power
of love.

Thank Jesus Christ, because He takes all our meager efforts and turns them into a real and true hope that sees
past all the challenges of the present and into a future where His love binds all people together, all people of all
backgrounds and races and histories all bound together as one in Him.
The civil rights movement was born in Christian faith and values.  The early leaders of the movement were
Christian ministers, Black and white alike, who saw injustice and worked in nonviolent ways to bring the love of
Jesus Christ to bear on a system that reflected neither the gospel itself nor the deepest values of the U.S.
Constitution.

As Christians, when we rehearse that struggle and celebrate the positive achievements of Americans who
excelled despite having been socially marginalized, we affirm the values and responsibilities of our faith.
The Life and Times of Martin Luther King Jr.
Black History Quiz
High school students are hit by a high-pressure water jet from a firehose during a protest in Birmingham, Alabama, in
1963. Images like this one, printed in Life, inspired international support for the demonstrators.
(Image credit: Charles Moore, Black Star)
Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1964, at a press conference.
(photo by Walter Albertin)
This image of Parker High School student Walter Gadsden being attacked by dogs was published in The New York
Times on May 4, 1963.
(Image credit: Bill Hudson, Associated Press)
September 5, 1963:
Group of African Americans viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney,
Birmingham, Alabama
Photographed in 1863 – Peter, a man who was enslaved in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, whose scars are a result of a
whipping by his overseer, who was subsequently discharged by Peter's owner.
(Photo on file with U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, online at archives.gov among others.)
The transatlantic slave trade resulted in a vast and yet still unknown loss of life for African captives both in and
outside of America. Approximately 1.2 - 2.4 million Africans died during their transport to the New World More
died soon upon their arrival.

    The amount of life lost in the actual procurement of slaves remains a
    mystery but may equal or exceed the amount actually enslaved.  The
    savage nature of the trade, in which most of the enslaved people
    were from African, led to the destruction of individuals and cultures.

    Many Africans died as a result of their actual labor, slave revolts or
    diseases they caught while living among New World populations. A
    database compiled in the late 1990s put the figure for the
    Transatlantic Slave Trade at more than 11 million people. For a long
    time, an accepted figure was 15 million. Most historians now agree
    that at least 12 million slaves left the continent between the fifteenth
    and nineteenth century, but 10 to 20% died on board ships. Thus a
    figure of 11 million enslaved people transported to the Americas is
    the nearest demonstrable figure historians can produce.
A handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1769.
    After the Union victory over the Confederacy, a brief period of southern black
    progress called Reconstruction, followed. From 1865 to 1877, under protection
    of Union troops, some strides were made toward equal rights for African-
    Americans. Southern black men began to vote and were elected to the United
    States Congress and to local offices such as sheriff. Coalitions of white and black
    Republicans passed bills to establish the first public school systems in most
    states of the South, although sufficient funding was hard to find. Blacks
    established their own churches, towns and businesses. Tens of thousands
    migrated to Mississippi for the chance to clear and own their own land, as 90%
    of the bottomlands were undeveloped. By the end of the century, two-thirds of
    the farmers who owned land in the Mississippi Delta bottomlands were Black.

    The aftermath of the Civil War accelerated the process of national African
    American identity formation. Tens of thousands of Black northerners left homes
    and careers and also migrated to the defeated South, building schools, printing
newspapers, and opening businesses.

Yes great news, but not before the murders, the raping of Black women and children by their White slave
masters - rapes that occurred within only a few feet where the White slave masters worshiped in their church!  
Yes, great news, but not before the beatings with whips and chains.
Sign for "Colored waiting room", Georgia, 1943
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks
Rosa Parks in 1955, with Martin Luther King, Jr. in the background
Police report on Parks, December 1, 1955, page 1
Booking photo of Ms. Rosa Parks
Deputy Sheriff D.H. Lackey fingerprints Parks during
her February 22, 1956 indictment for organizing a
boycott.
Parks on a Montgomery bus on December 21,
1956, the day Montgomery's public transportation
system was legally integrated.
Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a UPI reporter
covering the event.
Describing the Value of Black History Month for non-Blacks
Brief History Lesson
Brief History Lesson
Frederick Douglass
    Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, circa 1818
    February 20, 1895) an American abolitionist, women's suffragist, editor, orator,
    author, statesman, minister and reformer. Escaping from slavery, he made strong
    contributions to the abolitionist movement, and achieved a public career that led
    to his being called "The Sage of Anacostia" and "The Lion of Anacostia".
    Douglass is one of the most prominent figures in African American and United
    States history.

    He was a firm believer in the equality of all people, whether Black, female,
    Native American, or recent immigrant. He was fond of saying, "I would unite with
    anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong."
Frederick Douglass
W.E.B. DuBois
    William Edward Burghardt Du Bois February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an
    American civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, historian, author, and
    editor.

    Historians have written that in the course of his long, turbulent career, W. E. B.
    Du Bois attempted virtually every possible solution to the problem of twentieth-
    century racism— scholarship, propaganda, integration, national self-
    determination, human rights, cultural and economic separatism, politics,
    international communism, expatriation, third world solidarity.

    The first African-American graduate of Harvard University, where he earned his
    Ph.D. in History, Du Bois later became a professor of history and economics at
    Atlanta University. He became the head of the National Association for the
    Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, becoming founder and editor
    of the NAACP's journal The Crisis. Du Bois rose to national attention in his
    opposition of Booker T. Washington's ideas of social integration between Whites
and Blacks, campaigning instead for increased political representation for blacks in order to guarantee civil
rights, and the formation of a Black elite that would work for the progress of the African American race.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X
The March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom
King is perhaps most famous for
his "I Have a Dream" speech,
given in front of the Lincoln
Memorial during the 1963 March
on Washington for Jobs and
Freedom.
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